I / O

Introduction to I/O

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

In this clip from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Dr. Albert Edwards explains the field of I/O psychology; it combines business with psychology to help with performance, selection, and diversity. Dr. Edwards explains that I/O psychologists can create strategic plans and goals for an organization in order to help the company’s overall effectiveness. He explains The Chicago School’s program and how important the I/O field has become. Define industrial/organizational psychology. What are the major fields in I/O psychology?

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What is Organizational Psychology?

Organizational psychology is defined as a branch of psychology that focuses on organizational development and change, leadership, and human capital in each organization. John explains that you spend a third of your life in bed, at work, and out and about. How does he explain the field’s importance? What do organizational psychologists do in the workplace to assess the company’s “wellness”?

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What Tools are Used in Organizational Psychology?

John explains that excellent testing and assessment tools are available to make a difference in organizational consulting and that these tools have been examined and tested for accuracy. By using psychological assessment, we are able to understand people on an individual level and make necessary adjustments. What are the tools John mentions and how are these assessments administered? What tests does John frequently use?

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Human Factors Psychology – Clemson Graduate School

Dr. Eric Muth discusses his research in the human factors psychology program at Clemson University. He explains his experiment on motion stress on human performance. Dr. Muth also explains that his lab focuses on human interaction with specific devices in order to understand why we’re unable to sustain certain environments. What technical fields might need guidance from human factors psychology most?

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Ergonomics and Human Factors Research in the Classroom

Cornell professor of design and environmental analysis Alan Hedge and students Scott Brenner and Samantha Berg discuss the benefits of research in the classroom and career applications for the field of ergonomics. Dr. Hedge has his students conduct experiments that ergonomists use in their research. Berg explains that she and the other students are testing usability of different kinds of computer mice to determine which mouse is the best. How does this course help prepare them for real world research?

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Bad Human Factors Designs: The Bidet

In this student project, Michael Dixon explains why the bidet is poorly designed. Dixon explains that it lacks functionality because there aren’t any typographical explanations on the handle and valves. He then explains how he plans to improve its functionality. He then uses post-it notes to show which handle controls the hot and cold water functions, including which way to turn the middle knob. What everyday appliance could you improve and how?

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World Business Review – Personnel Decisions

Founded in 1967 by Marvin Dunnette, an industrial/organizational psychology pioneer and author of the world renowned Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Personnel Decisions International (PDI) has been at the forefront of merging science and business into practical talent management applications ever since. Dr. Brian Davis explains succession management and how important it will be to efficiently prepare burgeoning leaders. Rating performance must measure performance and potential, including foundational and accelerators. What is succession management planning? What are required steps in conducting a job analysis? What recommendations are made in this clip?

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Employee Selection: Techniques

Internet Recruiting and Job Search Techniques

This clip focuses on internet recruiting and its importance in finding candidates. The speaker explains that the internet is a valuable and cost-effective tool to find résumés, market your business, and carry out routine tasks involved in recruiting. He explains that you must understand the different ways that the internet can help you recruit via the internet. His top 10 best ways are: 1. perform market research; 2. visit the jobs section on company websites; 3. find candidates and résumés online; 4. post jobs to employment websites; 5. communication via email; 6. find hourly recruiting contracts; 7. use applicant tracking systems; 8. find potential business partners; 9. create a recruiting website; and 10. create shared-placement and split-fee agreements. According to research, what makes for an effective and attractive recruitment ad?

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NBR | Now Hiring? | PBS

This PBS clip reports that, although the economy is struggling, there are many open job positions that have been difficult to fill. Aon, an insurance/risk management firm, is having difficulty finding candidates for 500 positions. They search social networking sites for candidates who work at Aon competitors and their VP says they prefer hiring working candidates. Cision, a PR company, is looking to hire research and sales professionals with a specific set of skills. What other methods should these companies use to find good candidates?

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How to Get a Job: How to Conduct an Interview

In this eHow clip, Pat Goodwin gives a “how to” on conducting a job interview. Goodwin encourages organization representatives to be prepared for the interview by being on their best behavior, dressed professionally, and exhibiting positive body language and overall behavior. Examine the interviewee’s résumé, body language, and interaction. Ask yourself whether or not they represent themselves well and are a good fit for the position. Ask behavioral questions to determine if the position is well-suited for your position. What should you do, as an organization representative, before, during, and after the interview?

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How to Hire a New Employee: Checking References

Tina Buechler explains the ins and outs of hiring a new employee, including how to ensure you made the right decision by checking references. Buechler mentions that employers often do not verify the applicant’s information with a reference. She has, in the past, discovered falsehoods from the interviewee and their reference and this candidate became disqualified for the position. Buechler gives some sample questions to ask the interviewee’s reference. What is résumé fraud? How can the assumption that a reference will only say positive things about an applicant lead to negligent hiring? Are references a strong predictor of future performance?

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How to Hire a New Employee: Placing a Job Ad

Tina Buechler outlines how to place a job ad. Often, it is a list of items or tasks the employee will be responsible for rather than a marketing ad that will entice interviewees to seek employment with your company. Buechler explains that you should not only overview skills, knowledge, and attitudes but also promote your company. Look at traditional and nontraditional ways to post job ads. Where can job ads be posted and/or displayed? Which are successful and which are unsuccessful venues for job ads?

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How to Hire a New Employee: The Job Description

In this Expert Village clip, Tina Buechler offers advice to craft a successful job description. She advises employers to assess whether or not existing employees can efficiently absorb the open position’s responsibilities and where skill shortages exist. Create a job description that answer the questions: 1. What are the skills, education, work experience, and qualifications you need?; 2. How many years of experience are required?; 3. What are the technical skills and existing knowledge you expect someone to have when you hire them?; and 4. What kinds of attitudes are you looking for (problem-solver, self-sufficient, etc.)? Examine job descriptions posted online (possibly through your university career center). Do the descriptions answer these questions?

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Best Careers 2009: Occupational Therapist Job Description

Occupational therapists help people with physical issues return to their occupation. Occupational therapy jobs include working in hospitals, homes, and schools. Christine Harmon explains how rewarding her role as an occupational therapist for children. Harmon gives some examples of what she does with children and also explains what roles occupational therapists play in other environments. What are some of the work environments Harmon mentions? Is this a successful job description? What components should a job description have to be successful?

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Best Careers 2009: Firefighter Job Description

Firefighters have a heroic, exciting, and dangerous job to do, but it's a very rewarding career. Christopher Ouellette explains the adrenaline rush of being a firefighter. Ouellette describes work experience, how he became a firefighter, and what the pros and cons have been so far. Is this a successful job description? What key points would you want to know before becoming a firefighter?

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Employee Selection: Recruiting, Interviewing, and Testing

NY Job Fair Packed in Tough Economy

In this AP clip, unemployed people line up outside of a New York job fair. More than 700 people arrived within the first two hours of this job fair. Job seekers explain what kinds of jobs they are looking for and how difficult it is to locate a satisfactory position. What kinds of job fairs exist? How should you prepare yourself when attending a job fair like this?

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How to Prepare for an Interview

In this eHow clip, Shannon Terry explains how to prepare for an interview by researching the company, doing a test drive of the job site, reviewing the qualifications, and practicing with a friend. In your research, check the company’s website. Arrive prepared (drive to the job site, bring extra copies of your résumé, and practice your interview). Although Terry doesn’t discuss appearance in this clip, it is very important to dress accordingly. How should you dress for an interview?

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How to Answer Questions in a Structured Oral Interview

In this eHow clip, Shannon Terry explains how to answer questions in a structured oral interview by describing the situation, stating the objective, giving examples and showing the positive end results for the company. Terry explains what a structured interview is and why companies use this method. By using specific examples from past work experience, you can effectively show the company that you would be a valuable employee. What are some advantages of a structured interview? What are some disadvantages of a structured interview? What is an unstructured interview?

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Human Resources: How to Negotiate Salary During Job Offer

This video featuring Pat Goodwin, who is an executive coach, trainer, and career development professional, offers advice on how to negotiate salary during a job offer. Goodwin advises the prospective employee to thank the employer, determine what you are able to accept (base rate), what you have been making, what increase you’d like, and what the salary range is for the market. If you do not receive your base rate, you should ask for flexibility and be prepared to offer that amount. Why is it important to arrive to an interview properly prepared to discuss salary?

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NFL and the Wonderlic Test

Every year at the NFL Combine, prospective NFL players take the Wonderlic Personnel Test to measure a player's cognitive ability. Although their physical abilities are important, coaches also want to know what their players’ cognitive abilities are and what that says about their personality in a team environment. The Wonderlic Test measures general intelligence; the company publishes the test in 14 languages for 7,000 businesses for 2-1/2 million people worldwide. What kinds of questions are included on the Wonderlic Test? How long are test takers given to take the test? How does the NFL use the Wonderlic Test in their player selection?

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Personality Inventories

This video clip from Intelecom gives an overview of personality inventories and how they can be used. Personality inventories have become an increasingly common assessment tool in determining the basic underlying dimensions of an individual's personality. The use of these inventories may help a person understand and utilize their abilities. Explain how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) measures personality. What are the “big five” dimensions? Why is it important to understand your own personality to find a satisfying career? Why are law enforcement officials along with people in other fields of work given psychological exams?

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Jobs for Introverts

Laurence Shatkin from JIST Publishing offers advice on which jobs are best for introverted people in a PowerPoint presentation. The presentation’s goal is to identify introversion, explain which work situations are most appealing to introverts, along with challenging workplace strategies. Shatkin explains person-environment fit, strengths of introverts, and workplace challenges (like multi-tasking and teamwork). What jobs, according to Shatkin, are best for introverts? What interviewing techniques does he offer?

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Legal Issues in the Workplace

Workplace Discrimination – 12 Danger Zones

In this supervisor training video, a diverse group of co-workers is waiting to hear about a big promotion. The group discusses how they would enjoy the promotion. Supervisors Robert and Kevin mull over their options and make discriminatory comments about the candidates. They discuss gender, disability, disease, race, sexuality, and reverse racism. After the clip ends, a roundtable discussion occurs in which two men discuss protected characteristics of employees and how the supervisors used those characteristics to determine who received a promotion. What are federally protected classes? Were any of those protected classes NOT discussed in this clip?

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Discrimination at Work? Age, Race, Gender, National Origin – Protected Class – Joel Baruch

In this clip, attorney Joel Baruch answers the question “I’ve been discriminated against at my job. What recourse do I have?” Baruch explains that discrimination must be based on a protected class (age, race, gender, national origin). If you are being treated differently in the workplace but the motive is not based in a protected class, would you have a case? Which case, state, and local laws expand the definition of protected classes? How do you feel about the term “protected class”?

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Now on PBS | Teen Sexual Harassment at Work

Sexual harassment is a vastly underreported phenomenon, but some brave young women are stepping up publicly to tell their stories. In the program, abused teenagers share their own stories with senior correspondent Maria Hinojosa. We track their legal journeys to justice, and how the issue impacts teenagers across the country -- many of whom don't know how to report workplace abuse, or to even recognize when their bosses cross the line. In this excerpt, Ali Tomlin tells her emotional story of sexual harassment at the hands of a manager at a Jamba Juice franchise in Washington State. Ali, who was 17 when she worked there, recounts the inappropriate behavior that she says led her and her mother to file a lawsuit against the company. The case was settled, and Ali received $85,000. Jamba Juice fired the manager in question.What are the different types of sexual harassment? If discrimination and/or sexual harassment occur, what are the victim’s options to resolve the issue?

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Legal Facts & Information: What Is the Family Medical Leave Act?

The Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) allows employees of government agencies and companies with more than 50 employees to take up to three months of unpaid leave during or after a pregnancy. Check out the website for the FMLA for more information with advice from a lawyer in this free video on medical leave. What makes an employee eligible for FMLA? In what family matters are employees covered by FMLA?

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John Stossel: Pregnancy Anti-Discrimination Act Failed

This clip from ABC News covers the Pregnancy Anti-Discrimination Act. It discusses how many companies, including Novartis, have been sued and an overall rise in complaints since the act was established. David Sanford, a lawyer for a female employee at Novartis, is launching a class action suit because his client suffered pregnancy discrimination. What is the pregnancy discrimination act?

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The Impact of Affirmative Action

Over the past several decades, many fewer minority students would have been admitted to college or into professional programs without the assistance of affirmative action. In recent years, however, Supreme Court rulings "have been hard" on such programs, with critics expressing concern about quota systems. Much of the current debate about affirmative action is over whether or not it should be used to correct past inequities. Experts discuss the effect of affirmative action and controversy surrounding it. How has it become a quota system and why can this be detrimental to a company’s success? How has it aided cultural distribution?

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Employee Health Habits

Attorney Vikki Ziegler is a guest on the Fox Business Channel where they are debating if your lifestyle choices in regards to your health could potentially be grounds of dismissal. Wayne Rogers does not believe a company can impose health habits on its employees if it does not affect other employees. The panel weighs pros and cons of health concerns (smoking, high cholesterol, etc.) and their relation to health care costs. Does the employer have the right to hire or fire anyone based on their health habits?

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Employee Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance

I/O Psychology Project – Positive Reinforcement

[Please note this video includes music but the students do not speak] This video project shows the effects of positive reinforcement in the workplace. Two employees receive certifications as they start work. In the next scene you see the two employees working efficiently. In the first week, their manager puts star stickers on a positive reinforcement tracking sheet to reward them for their work. In the second week, the employees receive star stickers in exchange for their work; Employee A receives a candy bar in addition to the stickers and Employee B does not. In the third week, the manager gives Employee A a pay increase that he doesn’t extend to Employee B. What happens in weeks four and five? Has this clip sufficiently shown positive reinforcement? Would this method be useful in the workplace?

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Getting Paid to Stay Healthy

A new phrase is buzzing among employees of some companies: "wellness incentive." Employers are offering rewards for staying healthy. Wyatt Andrews reports. How do wellness programs (especially when paired with an incentive) affect an employee’s needs, values, and wants? What are safety, social, ego, and self-actualization needs and how does satisfaction of those needs affect employee motivation? How do wellness programs benefit the company?

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Herzberg Motivators

This flash movie, resembling the videogame “Super Mario”, shows the motivators in Herzberg’s two-factor theory. What are motivators and which are not covered in this flash movie (if any)? What are hygiene factors? How does this theory apply to motivation in the workplace?

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Office Space Trailer

This trailer for the film Office Space shows two work environments (an office and a restaurant) and the stress caused by an unsatisfactory workplace. The main character contemplates his future and managers press employees to “do more”. What causes employees to be satisfied with and committed to their jobs?

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Job Satisfaction

This organizational behavior student project covers job satisfaction in the workplace, including a look at productivity, customer service, absenteeism, and turnover. Stan is a satisfied employee who enjoys his job; he is productive and efficient. When Stan becomes unsatisfied with his job, he is no longer productive. A student explains that job satisfaction and productivity are related. Using Stan as an example, the group shows how job satisfaction affects customer service, absenteeism, and turnover. How does the individual difference theory affect job satisfaction? What other factors (such as culture and intelligence) affect job satisfaction?

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U.S. Job Satisfaction Nears a Decade High

According to AP 48% of Americans in 2008 say that they are completely satisfied with their job, which is the second highest Gallup has measured during this decade. Americans may value their jobs (and be more satisfied with their jobs) more because of the economy and lack of other options. In this survey, job satisfaction was measured by physical safety conditions, relation with coworkers, flexibility of schedule, job security, and competency of supervisor. The survey also asked what they are dissatisfied with at their current job. How do these factors relate to Maslow’s needs hierarchy?

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Attitudes, Emotions, and Work

In this student project, five women demonstrate various aspects of the workplace and satisfaction therein. Here are their roles and topics: Amanda (manager-resigned work satisfaction), Kim (employee-progressive work satisfaction), “Carol” (employee-constructive work dissatisfaction), My (employee-stabilized work satisfaction), and Wilma (employee-withdrawal behaviors). In the first scene, My makes a personal phone call while her co-workers express their annoyance, but Amanda announces that she is the best salesman and has high customer service marks; she acknowledges that Kim needs to do better but says nothing to Carol who becomes incensed and takes a coffee break. Each member of the group exemplifies their topic area in their actions and in “testimonials”. How does this clip show affiliation and identification in a group environment?

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I/O Psych Project – Stress and Worker Wellbeing

This student project on stress and worker wellbeing shows an office environment where two employees are in cubes facing one another. They are both on the phone, receiving paperwork from co-workers, and have cluttered work spaces. They seem a bit flustered and disorganized. The worker in a blue button-up shirt seems very stressed as he receives more and more work. He receives a memo about a stress reduction workshop and ignores it. He and the worker next to him (wearing a white button-up shirt) bump into one another on their way to get coffee. He is knocked unconscious and dreams about his stressful environment. What are sources of stress (inside and outside of the workplace)? What advice might you offer the stressed employee (that the counselor did not) to alleviate his anxiety?

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Human Resources: Employee Performance Appraisal Samples

How do employers measure employee performance? Pat Goodwin speaks for eHow and offers samples of employee performance appraisals, which include the 360, the Harrison, the Campbells, and Myers-Briggs. Goodwin believes the “360” is the most effective measurement; the employee selects fellow colleagues and managers to appraise them on their interactions in the office. What are the steps involved in a performance appraisal process? How might established goals (between employee and manager) affect appraisal?

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Performance Review

In this clip from the UK, a female employee undergoes a performance review and, after having a discussion with her computer, decides to be more proactive about her own career. Performance review sets out to encourage individuals to think about reviews in a new way, so they stop dreading them and start seeing them in a more positive light. What should you be prepared to discuss in your performance review?

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The Office Performance Review (Deleted Scene)

In this clip from The Office, Dwight creates a visual aid to convince his manager, Michael, that he deserves a raise. Why are performance reviews necessary? How can a performance review benefit the employee and/or the company? What steps should a company take in order to decide the best appraisal method? Who else (besides the manager) can evaluate performance?

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How to Do Effective Performance Appraisals

To achieve results, individuals and teams need to know what is expected of them using effective performance appraisals. Steven offers some tips: 1. Recognize the outcome (a learning and development plan for the employee); 2. Employer should come prepared to the appraisal interview (as should the employee); 3. Use documentation and bring questions; and 4. Focus on the future rather than what hasn’t worked in the past. Following his explanation, Carol and Steven perform an exemplary appraisal interview. What should the employer and employee do prior to the interview? What should each do during the interview?

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Hiring and Firing: How To Do It Right

CEOs at Demofall 2007 share sage advice on hiring and firing employees. CEOs explain that you should replace an employee as soon as you acknowledge an issue (because, at that point, it is already too late), make a termination quick and humane, have a conversation with employee about why they aren’t a strong fit for the position ASAP, and, proactively, hire and/or recruit the right people in the first place. What advice did the last CEO give regarding firing an employee? What does one CEO mean when he says an employee is not a good fit “culturally”?

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Terminating an Employee for Cause

This student project provides examples of the correct and incorrect ways to terminate an employee. Andrew is fired and asked to leave immediately without clear reason or explanation. In the correct example, Andrew is brought in to speak with his manager, the HR representative, and the company’s head. The HR representative provides documentation and company policy and procedures. What are other legal reasons for terminating employees (ex. reduction in force)? Was the second a good example of how a termination meeting should go?

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Training, Leadership, and Group Behavior (Commitment and Conflicts)

How to Hire a New Employee: Training the New Employee

Tina Buechler emphasizes the importance to adequately training new employees. Make sure the employee knows the following: 1. key responsibilities; 2. key deliverables; 3. workplace culture; and 4. employee manual/company guidelines. The applicant should be given specific guidelines and parameters in order to succeed. How can you motivate existing employees to attend training sessions?

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Leadership: Leading and Communicating with Confidence by Ty Howard

[Please note the visual quality of this clip is a bit grainy, but the vocal quality is strong.] Motivational speaker Ty Howard lectures on leadership and communication styles, including how to create effective leaders, connect with passion, and change management in business. Howard explains that managers ask him, “How do I inspire my people?” He advises you should lead and communicate with confidence. What is the relationship between personal characteristics and leader performance?

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To Be a Leader: How and Why

Jack Hayhow with Opus Communications gives an overview of how and why to be a leader. He quotes ship captain D. Michael Abrashoff: “There was a direct relationship between how much the crew knew about a plan and how well they carried it out. That, in turn, brought better results and helped us become more combat ready.” Hayhow says leaders must explain the “how” and “why” to his/her employees. Why might employee performance improve if they understand the “why” and not just the “how’?

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To Be a Leader: The Power of We

Jack Hayhow discusses “the power of WE” and John Gottman’s research on positive to negative interactions (ideal is 5 positive: 1 negative). Hayhow relates Gottman’s relationship research to the use of we (as positive) versus I (as negative). He emphasizes the importance of a leader and/or manager’s use of vocabulary in order to make his/her employees feel like they are part of a team. Aside from downward communication that occurs within a team what other ways can downward communication be distributed?

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How Bad is Your Boss?

Actor James Michael Tyler meets with Jean Lipman-Blumen, author of The Allure of Toxic Leaders. She explains that toxic leaders have many things in common; they leave us worse off than they found us by inflicting serious harm and/or damage to people, organizations, institutions, and nations. Lipman-Blumen judges toxic leaders by dysfunctional behavioral qualities, including lack of integrity, amorality, greed, and oversized egos. How does the “unsuccessful” leader compare with the toxic leader? What factors contribute to an unsuccessful leader?

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Extreme Teambuilding from Premier Corporate Training

This is an ad for Extreme Teambuilding, a unique training program that uses exclusive instructional and assessment methods used by Special Forces personnel. It is used for employee selection, networking, staff motivation, and problem solving. He explains the program can be tailored to your needs. He emphasizes the importance of communication, team work, leadership skills, time appreciation, lateral thinking, accelerated decision making, and customer care skills. How might this kind of program improve employee communication skills?

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Heroes Football 2009 Superbowl Commercial

This 2009 Superbowl commercial features characters from the TV show Heroes in a football game against former football all stars. The heroes work together using agility, strength, team work, and their super abilities to compete against NFL legends. Does this commercial demonstrate strong group cohesion? How does group cohesiveness affect productivity, efficiency, and member satisfaction? What other behaviors does it affect?

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Conflict Resolution Online Course – UniversalClass

This brief clip discusses conflict, its prevalence in media, and how to resolve conflicts in the workplace. Conflict rarely produces positive results. As a preview to the full length online class, discussion topics include animosity, dissent, anger, frustration, rage, disagreements, differences of opinion, yelling, personal attacks and vindictiveness in the business setting. What are some causes of conflict in the workplace? What are some ways to resolve conflicts?

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New Workforce Absenteeism Study Offers Insights on Who is Calling in Sick—and Why

Nathan Hiller, assistant professor from the business department at Florida International University, explains why he has studied absenteeism. Oftentimes, Hiller explains, two types of job attitudes predict absenteeism. The study looked at job satisfaction over time. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment, in combination, are attitudes found in employees who show up to work. How could a wellness program help reduce absenteeism? What might you ask the former employer of an interviewee regarding attendance and why?

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Trend: The 4 Day Work Week

A 4 day work week can help businesses cut their budget, increase energy efficiency, and even reduce overtime, sick time, and turnover. The shorter work week helps both the employee and employer save money, but their 4 days at work are longer than regular business hours. However, commuting before and after peak commute times helps alleviate one employee’s stress. What other ways can businesses reduce turnover?

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